Measles Outbreak in HCMC
Measles is a highly contagious viral infection. Transmission is mainly by air.
The virus is transmitted either directly to a patient or sometimes indirectly because of the persistence of the virus in the air or on a surface contaminated by nasopharyngeal secretions.
After exposure to the virus, the onset of a rash manifests after a delay of 14 days on average (7 to 18 days).
The invasion phase lasts 2 to 4 days and is marked by the appearance of a fever at 38.5°C, respiratory signs (cough, rhinitis, conjunctivitis) accompanied by a general malaise with abnormal physical weakness or lack of energy.
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The rash lasts 5-6 days. The contagious phase begins the day before the appearance of the first respiratory signs and extends until 5 days after the onset of the eruption.
Complicated forms are more common in patients less than 1-year-old and over 20 years old.
The leading cause of death is pneumonia in children and acute encephalitis in adults (about 1 case per 1000).
Prevention and vaccination
In infants and children, the immunization schedule includes a first dose of measles-mumps-rubella vaccine at 12 months of age and a second dose before the age of 2 years.
A vaccine catch-up (total of 2 doses of triple vaccine) is recommended for all persons over 24 months of age and born since 1980.
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More: Schedule of vaccinations and vaccination recommendations according to the opinion of the High Council of Public Health.
Quarantine of the patient is recommended throughout the contagious period, ie up to 5 days after the onset of the eruption.
The vaccine catch-up, as recommended above, performed within 72 hours after contact with a case can prevent the occurrence of the disease in the vaccinated.
What are the recommendations?
Only vaccination prevents the occurrence of measles.
- Check your vaccination record. Immunization with 2 doses of the MMR vaccine is recommended to anyone born since 1980, or in the absence of a personal history of measles.
If there is no vaccination or incomplete vaccination, consult your doctor.
- In case of contagion with a patient presenting with a measles diagnosis, or in case of fever associated with respiratory signs and/or rash, consult your doctor.
For further information, here is the reference page of the Ministry of Europe and Foreign Affairs: https://www.diplomatie.gouv.fr/fr/conseils-aux-voyageurs/conseils-par-pays-destination/vietnam/#sante
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