Fresh Air or Ghastly Gasp: Getting Clear On Saigon's Air

By: Sivaraj Pragasm

Those who live in Saigon will agree that the air quality could be improved. Although the situation isn’t as bad as in Hanoi, the air quality reading still occasionally flutters in and out of the unhealthy range and sometimes even spikes into the hazardous range.

air pollutionImage source: baotainguyenmoitruong.vn

The Culprits

According to IQAir, a Swiss company that specialises in air purifiers, the main causes of air pollution in Vietnam are traffic and industrial, handicraft and construction activities, with traffic accounting for 70 percent of pollution in urban areas.

The air that we breathe is laced with carcinogenic substances.

According to research by the World Health Organization’s cancer agency and Yale University, Vietnam is among the top 10 countries in the world for air pollution.

Measuring It

Air pollution consists of different components: oxides of nitrogen which consists of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and nitric oxide (NO); carbon monoxide (CO); sulphur dioxide (SO2); and particulate-matter (PM), which includes particles that measure below 10 micrometres (PM10) and the more dangerous 2.5 micrometres (PM2.5)—dangerous because that’s small enough to bypass your body’s natural filtration system and end up deep in your lungs. (The diameter of a strand of human hair is 50-70 micrometres.)

Most PM2.5 particles are byproducts of organic compounds, combustion and metals, which mostly originate from industrial zones and exhaust fumes from vehicles.

air pollutionImage source: thanhnien.vn

What’s That Smell?

However, air pollution isn’t just limited to factories and combustion. In September 2016, the Da Phuoc landfill, run by Vietnam Waste Solutions Inc (VWS) in Binh Chanh District, was caught in a stink when it was found to have been illegally discharging sewage that exceeded safety limits.

This ended up with residents in District 7 and neighbouring areas having to deal with a bad stench for a few months, which only got worse during the rainy season and reached unbearable levels at night.

The operator ended up getting fined more than VND1.5 billion (US$66,000).

What You Can Do

Air pollution affects the entire troposphere — the lowest levels of the atmosphere in which we mere mortals live — but is anthropogenic, meaning it’s man made and something you can’t easily escape from.

So how can you play your part to ensure you’re not contributing to it?

The first step is to limit the amount of exhaust fumes on the road by either carpooling, riding a bicycle if the journey is short or taking a bus. If you’re driving or riding a motorbike, ensure that your vehicle is well-tuned and maintained, change the oil and filters and check your tyre pressures and wheel alignment.

If you’re going to be stationary for a while, turn off your engine. Idling is just contributing unnecessarily to the pollution.

air pollutionImage source: chuyendongxahoi.net
[Translation: I turned off my engine. Did you? Turn off your engine when the light is red!]

Other than the roads, you can also make a few adjustments to some of your daily tasks. Conserve energy by turning off your lights and electric appliances when not in use, use energy efficient light bulbs and appliances, use water-based or solvent free paints, and buy products that say “Low VOC”. Make sure all containers of household cleaners, chemicals and solvents are sealed, to prevent any of them from evaporating into the air.

Or just eat your way out of this problem

According to new medical evidence discussed in a New York Times opinion piece on air quality and diet, a Mediterranean diet -- fish, nuts, fruits and whole grains -- may go a long way towards strengthening the health of those who are low on high-quality air (read: us). There’s some interesting new research out there that suggests Vitamin B, fish oil and broccoli sprout extract drives down heart rate variability of individuals exposed to air pollution.

So, have some fish tonight and maybe finish off with a banana for that Vitamin B. It may be the best defence against HCMC’s unhealthy haze.

Banner image source: dantri.com.vn


Measles Outbreak in HCMC

By: City Pass Guide

Several cases of measles have appeared in Ho Chi Minh City in recent days, in the context of an epidemic in Vietnam.

Measles is a highly contagious viral infection. Transmission is mainly by air.

The virus is transmitted either directly to a patient or sometimes indirectly because of the persistence of the virus in the air or on a surface contaminated by nasopharyngeal secretions.

Clinical signs

After exposure to the virus, the onset of a rash manifests after a delay of 14 days on average (7 to 18 days).

The invasion phase lasts 2 to 4 days and is marked by the appearance of a fever at 38.5°C, respiratory signs (cough, rhinitis, conjunctivitis) accompanied by a general malaise with abnormal physical weakness or lack of energy.

Measles Outbreak in HCMCImage source: medicalnewstoday.com

The rash lasts 5-6 days. The contagious phase begins the day before the appearance of the first respiratory signs and extends until 5 days after the onset of the eruption.

Complicated forms are more common in patients less than 1-year-old and over 20 years old.

The leading cause of death is pneumonia in children and acute encephalitis in adults (about 1 case per 1000).

Prevention and vaccination

In infants and children, the immunization schedule includes a first dose of measles-mumps-rubella vaccine at 12 months of age and a second dose before the age of 2 years.

A vaccine catch-up (total of 2 doses of triple vaccine) is recommended for all persons over 24 months of age and born since 1980.

Measles Outbreak in HCMCImage source: sciencebasedmedicine.org

More: Schedule of vaccinations and vaccination recommendations according to the opinion of the High Council of Public Health.

Quarantine of the patient is recommended throughout the contagious period, ie up to 5 days after the onset of the eruption.
The vaccine catch-up, as recommended above, performed within 72 hours after contact with a case can prevent the occurrence of the disease in the vaccinated.

What are the recommendations?

Only vaccination prevents the occurrence of measles.

- Check your vaccination record. Immunization with 2 doses of the MMR vaccine is recommended to anyone born since 1980, or in the absence of a personal history of measles.

If there is no vaccination or incomplete vaccination, consult your doctor.

- In case of contagion with a patient presenting with a measles diagnosis, or in case of fever associated with respiratory signs and/or rash, consult your doctor.

For further information, here is the reference page of the Ministry of Europe and Foreign Affairs: https://www.diplomatie.gouv.fr/fr/conseils-aux-voyageurs/conseils-par-pays-destination/vietnam/#sante

Banner Image source: athenahealth.com


5 Ways to Stay Healthy in Saigon

By: City Pass Guide

Antoine Yvon, Head Nutritionist at CMI, tells us five ways to stay healthy in Ho Chi Minh City.

1. Do NOT Wear a Mask

It has almost become a cultural matter in Vietnam, but wearing a mask is actually making things worse. With a mask you are in hyperventilation, you breathe more, which increases the volume of air you inhale. This in turn exposes your lungs to more harmful particles. Masks also require you to breathe too much carbon dioxide, which is not good for your blood, your body’s acidity or your brain. It is better to get a bit of dust in your face (your bronchus and your nose have cilia and mucus that protect you against it) than breathe and re-breathe grubby air. However, if you still feel more protected by wearing a mask, you can always buy a carbon industrial mask that will protect you against micro-particles.

Photo via Pixabay

2. Banish Industrial Seasoning and Sauces

If you do not know what the sauce is made of, avoid it. Except the real soy sauce or nuoc mam, most seasonings in restaurants contain a lot of sodium (from salt or glutamate), sugar and oil, as well as a huge quantity of food additives (colouring, flavouring, among others). All together, these ingredients create a cocktail that’s not very healthy for you. Even the more classical sauces (ketchup, mayonnaise, sriracha, peanut sauce) are not really healthy. Be light with sauces and seasonings, and rarely use them.

3. Drop your Screens, Move and Bounce

Tablets, smartphones, TVs, computers. They’re everywhere. Raise your head and look up, move around your street, your district, your city and even the country. The human brain is the biggest of all primate brains because our very far ancestors stood up on their feet and increased their territory. By this behaviour, they also enhanced their energy expenditure. The need-to-move feeling is in our genes. It does not come from your dietitian or training coach, but from your inner nature. However long you’ve lived in Vietnam, there is always a new place to visit, even more so right here in Saigon.

Photo via Pixabay

4. Turn Down your Air Con

You live in a hot country but you breathe cold, dry air from your air con every day. It’s like wearing a cap on sunny days, isn’t it? Really, it is not the solution. The dry and cold air could affect your bronchus and your lungs, and when we start thinking about the bacteria and mold that may be in these uncleaned pipes, it’s easy to begin to understand the health risks.

A good way to use your air con is to always maintain a temperature not lower than 4-5°C compared to the temperature outdoors. It is enough to be comfortable, but not so low as to cause minor health problems. However, a fan is really the best way to go if you need to cool down.

Photo via Pixabay

5. Be Careful with Alcohol and Diversify your Diet

Alcohol is extremely caloric (seven kilocalories per gram). A can of beer or a glass of wine are almost as caloric as a can of coke, and cocktails are even more energetic. If you have five to six drinks in a day then you’ve already reached the suggested daily intake (from 350 to 800 kilocalories). My advice is not to exceed 10 glasses of alcohol a week, and to alternate with a glass of water during your parties.

Photo via Pixabay

Alcohol dehydrates you a lot, and to avoid being sick you should drink two times the volume of water that you’ve absorbed in alcohol. Drinks are not expensive in Vietnam, but your health’s value does not change. So be reasonable; you only have one life (and one liver).

The best way to avoid deficiency or chemicals, and to optimise nutrient consumption is to enjoy a variety of different cuisines. In other words, diversity is your best friend. Do not automatically turn towards healthy meals or superfood. Really, you do not need them that much. The marketing strategies are as strong in the food industry as they are on the side of healthy food, so be smart and do your own research.

Also, think about smart snacks. Avoid sugary foods and go for fresh fruits, raw nuts bread with grains and seeds with jam, cheese or peanut butter. For a balanced mental and physical life, gastronomic diversity is key!


Your Guide to Saigon’s Most Popular Traditional Medicine Techniques

By: Arik Jahn

Traditional medicine is recognised by many as a way to cure diseases in Vietnam. Often dismissed as esoteric mumbo-jumbo, these techniques, which were developed long before the era of modern medicine, are starting to catch on worldwide.

In Ho Chi Minh City, there are several reliable institutes that perform traditional medicine, such as the government-owned Traditional Medicine Institute in Phu Nhuan District or the Tam Duc Traditional Medical Clinic in Tan Binh District.

Then there’s also the CMI (Centre Médical International), one of the most renowned Western clinics in downtown Saigon. “Not many people know that the CMI has a traditional medicine department,” Dr. Anh Thu, working at the clinic since 2012, says laughing.

Her family has been working in traditional medicine for over five generations. When asked about the core theory behind it, she summarises: “Our body consists of a giant web called [the] meridian system. It links the parts of the body, supplying them with the qi, the vital energy, and regulates the distribution of blood and body fluids. This way, it maintains the balance between yin and yang and the five elements to protect the body against diseases.”

This is the core theory of traditional medicine.

Ready to try it? Then the next question is how to choose the right practitioner. “Best is, as always, to follow recommendations,” Dr. Anh Thu says. Observe how the doctor communicates with you during your first consultation and, most importantly, as Dr. Le Hai from Hanoi-based AcuVietnam adds, make sure they have an official licence.

Finally, there’s a range of techniques to choose from. We’ve picked the three most common ones.

Acupuncture

traditional medicineImage source: healthplus.vn

What Does It Help Against?

It is most commonly used for pain relief, but can also cure various other conditions such as migraine, insomnia or anxiety disorders, and even help you to stop smoking.

How Does It Work?

Certain points along the body’s meridians are stimulated by inserting fine, sterile needles into the skin in order to clear energy blockages and adjust the flow of qi.

How Long Does the Treatment Take?

A session can take from half an hour to two hours. Dr. Anh Thu recommends two to three sessions per week during one month for average cases, but the frequency and number of treatments differ from person to person.

Does It Hurt?

If performed by a good practitioner it shouldn’t hurt. When the needles are inserted, you might feel a short moment of numbness, but it’ll pass after a few minutes.

Are There Possible Side Effects?

The treatment might leave some bruises and a sore feeling but serious complications like infections or damaged tissue are extremely rare. Most side effects, like nausea or even fainting, are caused simply by a fear of needles.

Why Should I Do It?

Acupuncture is a very safe treatment method—as long as you seek out a capable practitioner. In many cases you’re likely to feel an improvement after the very first session. See for yourself!

Cupping

traditional medicineImage source: chaarg.com

What Does It Help Against?

Cupping is mainly used to deal with muscle pain, inflammation, fever or minor illnesses. Detoxification is another area of application.

How Does It Work?

Heated cups made of glass, bamboo or silicone are applied to the skin. When the air cools down, a vacuum is generated, creating a suction effect that increases the blood flow. The mildly terrifying, so-called ‘wet cupping’ includes making tiny cuts with a scalpel to draw out small quantities of blood.

How Long Does the Treatment Take?

The actual application of the cups takes only 10 to 20 minutes. It can be accompanied with massages. You’d usually have a session every two weeks.

Does It Hurt?

No, you just risk having a tight feeling on your skin during the treatment.

Are There Possible Side Effects?

Bruises, burns or even skin infections are possible side effects. More often, you’ll just have cup-shaped marks on your skin that disappear after some days.

Who Believes in This?

‘Posh Spice’ Victoria Beckham, all-time record holder of Olympic gold medals Michael Phelps and none other than Justin Bieber do!

Herbalism

traditional medicineImage source: tallahasseenurseries.com

What Does It Help Against?

It helps against pretty much anything, really, depending on the herbs used.

How Does It Work?

Herbalist remedies exist in many forms: infusions and syrup, lotions and creams, or powder put in capsules.

How Long Does the Treatment Take?

Normally, the patient takes the medication for one week, then sees the doctor again to adjust the formula according to possible changes in the patient’s condition. From there, the treatment can take from three days to a lifetime.

What About the Taste?

Really not good. Luckily, you mostly get herbalist medicine in capsule form. An old-school infusion is said to work better, though.

Are There Possible Side Effects?

As with everything you swallow, there can be side effects. Skin irritation or sleepiness would be two common ones.

Do I Have to Go to the Doctor for This?

Yes. Herbalist medicine varies strongly in quality, and not infrequently contains drugs or heavy metals. So it’s all the more important to know the ropes—and reliable suppliers.

Banner image source: expatliving.hk


Hoan My Sai Gon Hospital: Treatment with Respect

By: City Pass Guide

Hoan My Sai Gon Hospital was started in 1999 as the first private hospital in HCMC, and has since grown to become one of the most significant leaders in privatised healthcare.

Hoan My is a one-stop-shop hospital, due to the fact that they have highly qualified specialists in nearly every field, a vast and modernised range of imported medical equipment, and the staffing power to take care of every individual need of each patient.

VIP Package

Hoan My has just recently launched their premiere VIP medical facility on the 11th and 12th floors of their hospital in Phu Nhuan. Encapsulating the concept of a “Hotel Hospital”, this spotless, luxury healthcare unit adheres to international standards while providing ethical and cutting edge treatment for each patient. From the waiting room to the inpatient and outpatient areas, visitors are able to enjoy the comfort of a high-end hotel atmosphere. The lobby has carpeted floors, relaxing leather sofas and HD televisions to keep you occupied as your loved one receives meticulous, expert treatment. The inpatient and outpatient rooms also contain HDTVs, top of the line furnishings, and an ambiance that leaves you feeling calm. In case of immediate assistance, each room is equipped with an electronic call system for your convenience.

Unlike most hospitals, where you are relocated to different floors and sometimes even other hospitals for different procedures, the VIP wing is all-inclusive. You will not need to be transferred anywhere and any kind of treatment needed can be delivered on the same floor, saving you the hassle and headache of having to move around.

Patients also have the option to set up their appointments online and select the specialist of their choice; scrolling through the online profiles of each doctor gives patients the ability to overview their work experience and credentials. All doctors in the VIP area can speak English and visitors can feel comfort knowing there will not be a communication barrier.

Training and Staff

There are approximately 120 top doctors (many of whom are internationally trained) and 300 nurses currently employed at Hoan My Sai Gon. Doctors must have at least five years of working experience before being considered for employment and all specialists must have a PhD in their field, practical training and great competance in accordance with their degree. Nurses are also required to have a nursing degree or a certificate from nursing school, as well as undergo heavy-handed development courses in international patient Safety Goals.

Medical Technology

Having proper up-to-date medical technology is the key to providing international quality services, and this is one of the biggest advantages of having treatment at Hoan My Sai Gon. All their medical equipment is 100% imported and no more than four years old. Hoan My Sai Gon also has extensive cardiac and bypass equipment as this department undertakes a large number of patients with heart-related issues. An expert biomedical technology team is brought in to routinely check all equipment each month to ensure its proper function.

Patient Care

Quality patient care is the primary mission of Hoan My Sai Gon. For every one patient there are three staff members to assist each person in need. On average, patients will wait five minutes before they are initially seen by a professional. In lieu of avoiding overcrowding, doctors and nurses arrive before opening hours in order to assist people already waiting. They have also furnished their space with an above average volume of beds in order to keep patients comfortable as they await further treatment.

Quality Control

In order to attain the status of a premiere hospital, CEO Dr. Tram Em has implemented strict and comprehensive protocols that all employees must follow. Each week clinical audits are made; if standards are not met retraining will occur. Patient identification is another standardised process that inherently requires double and triple checking of personal health profiles of each visitor to avoid problems with allergies, bad medications or misdiagnosis. As a result of intuitive strategic management, Hoan My Sai Gon is able to provide complete support to every patient that visits their hospital, and the results clearly speak for themselves.

Contact information:

Website: www.hoanmy.com/saigon

Email: contactus.saigon@hoanmy.com

Hotline: +84 28 3995 9860

Phone booking: +84 28 3990 3995

Address: 60-60A Phan Xich Long, Phu Nhuan District


Traditional Medicine: Snake Oil or Miracle?

By: City Pass Guide

Once the preserve of the poor in Vietnam, Traditional Vietnamese Medicine [TVM] has taken on a new popularity amongst the middle and upper classes of Saigon.

People are returning to traditional medicinal roots in droves, keen to experience the combination of Western medicine and the ancient practices of their ancestors.

Witch Doctors or The Future of Medicine?

TVM practitioners may seem like witch doctors to some. The idea of an unqualified mystic talking about energy and using plants to cure disease is frequently dismissed (sometimes correctly) as absurd.

The reality is somewhat more complex. Modern TVM takes elements of Western medicine and incorporates them with the treatments practiced in Vietnam for centuries. This may seem quite contradictory. Practices such as acupuncture and herbalism are often labeled placebo-effect treatments rather than proper medicinal procedures.

However, to dismiss the potential benefits of TVM would be foolish. To understand this, consider aspirin. Present in the leaves of willow trees, aspirin has in one way or another been used for pain relief for over 2,400 years. In 1763, Scientist Edward Stone completed the first successful study on an extract of aspirin as a cure for fever. Credit has been given to Felix Hoffman, a scientist at Bayer for the first chemical synthesis of Aspirin in 1897.

Today aspirin is used to treat a huge variety of ailments, from headaches to heart conditions. All this from a leaf used through the millennia by herbalists who knew that certain plants had beneficial properties.

Modern TVM doctors are trained with rigorous discipline. As Le Hoang Son, Director of the Traditional Medicine Hospital explains (on behalf of his doctors), “To become a TVM doctor in Vietnam, a student needs seven and a half years to six year to study and 18 months to practice in hospital to get the license.”

Southern vs Northern TVM

Photo by Phoebe

It’s important to make the distinction between souther TVM (Thuoc Nam) and northern TVM (Thuoc Bac), which is more akin to TCM (Traditional Chinese Medicine).

Southern TVM, unlike northern TVM, is more based on the use of fresh herbs than reductions and tinctures. Primarily focused on herbalism, with a combination of plant-based cures and noninvasive procedures, it is somewhat more benign than its northern cousin. In extremely rare cases silkworms may be used, but plants are by far the most common medicinal source.

There is also a marked difference in the botany of the regions, with the plants of the north more similar to those found in China than the South, and some variance in the types of diseases experienced between regions.

The Godfather of Modern TV

If modern TVM - that is the combination of Western and traditional medicine - can be ascribed to anyone, it is probably Nguyen Van Be (or “Ong Ba Dat Phen”- meaning, roughly, “Man in the second position in the family on the Acid Land”).

“Ong Ba” fought in the American War. During his service he developed a fascination for herbalism as a solution to the lack of medicine in war-torn rural areas. Due to his interest in medicine, the government sent him to the North to study Western medicine. He studied hard, graduated with merit and returned to Ho Chi Minh City to continue his medical studies at the University of Medicine and Pharmacy. It was here that he began his studies in the capabilities of plants to cure snake poison, not a new concept but one which Ong Ba had been sceptical of until this point.

Hidden Risks of TVM's New-found Popularity

Modern TVM’s popularity amongst Vietnam’s middle and upper classes makes sense, it takes the best of both worlds and seems to be making great headway in delivering provable results.

However, this has led to less well-off Vietnamese getting their medical advice and treatment from pharmacies, which in turn has led to a rise in the use of antibiotics for even minor ailments. There are serious negative implications therein, such as an increase in bacterial resistance to antibiotics which, combined with a lack of funding for new antibiotics, could lead to a rise in antibiotic-resistant diseases.

TVM vs Western Medicine

While the empiricism and scientific processes behind Western medicine are central to their effectiveness, it is absurd to imagine that all alternative medicines are ineffective. Traditional remedies, if considered effective for the treatment of any ailment should be put through the rigours of Western empirical study to ascertain their effectiveness. With so many people dying of disease every day we should be doing more to finding cures in unorthodox areas.

Le Hoang Son explains: “Each type of medicine - Western and TVM - has its own advantages. Western medicine is good in acute diseases and surgery, while TVM has strong points in chronic diseases. Besides, [traditional medicinal] herbs were used for a long time and are popular ingredients in daily meals (ginger, garlic, etc.). Moreover, TVM has many non-drug treatments (acupuncture, acupressure, Yoga, and others) that are effective and affordable.”

By combining the disciplines of East and West, it is possible we could be able to cure any number of diseases. It may just require a little more cooperation and a little less cynicism.


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